Michael Hope, my second great grandfather, was born on this day, 18 July, in 1816. He was the son of Michael Hope, Sr. and Margaret Foster Errington and was born in Tynemouth, Northumberland, England.
Michael married Elizabeth “Bessie” Foster in July 1838 in Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, England. They had three children while they still lived in England. The young family immigrated with his parents to Grant County, Wisconsin, USA in 1846 where they made their home. In Grant County, Michael and Bessie had four more children. The couple supported their family by farming. He lived 69 years before he died on 05 December, 1885.
Today, June 5, 2014 is the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Piedmont in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. This is where Lt. Monroe Blue, a Confederate soldier (and my very distant cousin–a 4th cousin, 5x removed according to my Ancestry.com family tree) died in battle. Up front, I want to thank Jim Ballard from Houston, Texas, with whom I have been in email conversation about this battle. Jim is finishing a biography of CSA Brigadier General William Edmondson “Grumble” Jones who died soon after Monroe Blue in this same battle and who is mentioned in the story below.
I wrote of Lt. Monroe Blue earlier describing a bit of his experience as a prisoner of war in the same camp as his cousin, John Blue. I also wrote briefly of his death at the Battle of Piedmont and am expanding that story today on the anniversary of the battle.
Scott C. Patchan has written of this battle in his book, The Battle of Piedmont and Hunter’s Raid on Staunton. He describes many of the details of this battle that took place in the Shenandoah Valley. In Chapter 6, as the battle took a turn for the Northern troops:
Campbell’s detachment quickly turned toward the Tennesseans and Virginians in front of Wells [Colonel George Wells of the 34th Massachusetts] and ripped a searing volley into their flank. At the same time, Wells steadied his left wing and directed its fire at [Confederate Colonel Kenton] Harper’s Reserves, while the rest of his regiment volleyed into Confederates behind the fence. The pressure on the Confederates became too great, and their line began to crumble. [Confederate General "Grumble"] Jones rode into the the midst of a group of leaderless troops and called for an officer to assume command and retake the lost ground. At first no one came forward, but a moment later, Lieutenant Monroe Blue, commanding Company K of Harper’s regiment, leapt from his horse, waving his sword in the air, and shouted, “General, I will lead them, boys follow me and we will soon have them on the run.” Blue placed his cap on his sword, raised it into the air and led the troops in a a hopeless counter charge.
Campbell’s wing of the 54th Pennsylvania fired into Blue’s troops and quickly shattered what little formation they had. Blue attempted to rally them, shouting, “New Market! New Market! Remember New Market!” A captain from the 54th Pennsylvania saw the Confederates assembling around Blue and cried out, “Boys shoot that officer before he starts a rally!” A Pennsylvanian later recalled, “Several of us cut loose at him and he spun around, dropped his sword, and fell to the ground.” Blue died instantly, and those Confederates who had been gathering near him quickly vanished from the scene.
. . . As the last vestige of Confederate resistance evaporated, Grumble Jones succumbed to his combative nature and galloped among the fugitives in a last-grasp attempt to salvage the victory that had seemed almost certain a short time earlier. With his hat in his hand, he cheered the men and urged them to rally and hold their ground. The volume of rifle firing coming from the Federals was tremendous, and Jones soon fell, “stricken dead by loyal vengeance.” . . . Upon Jones’ death, the Confederate resistance in the immediate vicinity completely dissolved (Patchan, 109 – 110).
Private Thomas Evans of the 54th Pennsylvania made the claim of shooting the fatal shot in Monroe’s Blue’s neck. As the battle wore on, Private Evans:
. . . suddenly found himself face to face with the 45th Virginia’s color-bearer, who at that moment seemed “about as big as a full grown grizzly bear.” For the first time in his military service, Evans suddenly found a good use for his bayonet other than as a candle holder. He whacked the flag staff so hard that it “really stung that Johnny’s hands.” When he reflexively lowered the flag, Evans grabbed it and pulled, yelling, “Let go Reb!” The two men pulled back and forth and spun around in a circle, struggling for possession of the battle flag. Their melee ended when Evans raised his rifle with one arm and commanded, “Drop that there flag or I will pin you to a tree!” The Virginian promptly surrendered the flag and Evans turned it over to an officer and sent the prisoner to the rear. The Pennsylvanian received the Medal of Honor later that year for his capture of the flag. (Patchan, p. 112)
I learned from Jim Ballard’s research (mentioned in the first paragraph above) that, after the battle when they were cleaning up the grounds, Private Evans went to Monroe Blue’s body in hopes of retrieving Blue’s sword as a souvenir. When he got to the body of the fallen Lieutenant, the sword had already been taken by someone else. More surprising, the private also saw his own regimental commander, Colonel Jacob Campbell, grieving over Monroe’s body. The Colonel from Pennsylvania had gotten to know the Blue family while he was stationed in Hampshire County, Virginia and was distraught at Monroe’s death.
Most of the Confederate troops who died at the Battle of Piedmont were buried on that ground. Because Colonel Campbell knew Monroe Blue, he was able to put a name on the young Lieutenant’s grave.
Two years later, in 1866, many of the bodies from the Battle of Piedmont (and several other battlegrounds) were transferred to a newly expanded Confederate soldiers section of the Thornrose Cemetery in nearby Staunton, Virginia. (My gratitude goes to Scott Patchan who emailed me this information. He wrote: The Staunton Vindicator [the local newspaper] reported in late 1866 that Lt. Blue was among a large number of Confederate dead moved from Piedmont to Thornrose Cemetery. All but six were unknown. Blue’s identity was known because Col. Jake Campbell of the 54th PA knew the family and had it marked after the battle ended.)
The Valley Virginian of 05 December 1866 wrote it this way:
Removal of Our Dead From Piedmont
Summary: The paper reports on the removal of the bodies of Confederate soldiers to cemeteries in Staunton.
(Names in announcement: H. A.Lane, Capt.J. M.Welch, ThomasLegion, W. L.Moorehead, M.Blue, Sergt.D. W.Suttle, A. E.Tinsley, A. H.Siddlington, Marshall, DanielOwens, Samuel JohnsonGardener)
Full Text of Article:
About forty of our dead from Piedmont have been brought to the Cemetery here, among them H. A. Lane, 27th Va., Battalion, Capt. J. M. Welch, 6th N. C., Regiment, Thomas Legion, W. L. Moorehead, Co. B. 30th Va., Infantry, Lt. M. Blue, Hampshire County, Va., Sergt. D. W. Suttle, Co. E 60 Va., Infantry, Capt. J. P. B., Co. G, 30th Tenn., Regiment. The rest are unknown. The Ladies desire to thank the people of that portion of the county for the aid given by them, especially the soldiers of our Army. They desire to acknowledge the receipt of $5, from Mrs. A. E. Tinsley; $2, from A. H. Siddlington; $12,50 from Mrs. Marshall, who has so patriotically collected so much for the cause; $2 from Mr. Daniel Owens, of Baltimore. Mr. Samuel Johnson Gardener at the Western Lunatic Asylum, has agreed to plant out the trees in the Cemetery free of charge. Rich earth is needed, and our farmers should send it in at once. It is surely little to give–a cart load of earth they died for. Who can refuse the request? [Note: Remember this was Virginia, a Confederate state, still very early in its recovery from the war. It is a great experience to read the rest of the paper as it has been transmitted to us online.]
Lt. Monroe Blue was only 23 years old when he died at the Battle of Piedmont in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia 150 years ago today. There is no record of him ever marrying or having children. Yet, in his brief life he lived passionately, took great risks, and left a significant legacy associated with his name.
Jeremy Fralick was born on this day, May 24, in 1850. He was the fourth of ten children of Henry and Martha (Scott) Fralick, born in Bloomington, Grant County, Wisconsin. As the older brother of my great grandmother, Mary Ellen Fralick, Jeremy was my great grand uncle. Regrettably, young Jeremy died when he was just 3-1/2 years old, on 27 December 1853.
Jeremy’s older brother, Jerome, died two weeks after that on 11 January 1854. Jerome was the second oldest of the Fralick children, having been born 25 January, 1848 in Bloomington. (The township at that point was actually called “Tafton” but soon after was changed to Bloomington.) At the time of his death, Jerome was exactly two weeks short of his sixth birthday.
The close proximity of the time of their deaths suggested the possibility of a disease that cost both boys their lives. I have not yet found a document listing an official cause of death, but did discover there was a cholera epidemic in Wisconsin from 1849 – 1854. Maybe that was the culprit, maybe something else. Whatever the cause, both boys missed out on the opportunity to grow up and their family missed the opportunity to share long lives with them.
Today, May 21, is the birthday of Adamus “Adam” Börner. He was born in Gaulsheim, Germany in 1823, and was, I believe, the son of Henrici Josephi Boerner and Katharinae Erschfeld. Adam married Anna Maria Jenz and they lived their lives in Gaulsheim. They were written about in an earlier post.
This picture of their gravestone was sent to me by Christa, one of my Boerner cousins in Gaulsheim. I am grateful for her research, her willingness to share it, and for the gift of the Internet opening up such great relationships!
On March 12, 1670, Thomas Munson, the grandson of Captain Thomas Munson, was born in the town of New Haven in what had become the colony of Connecticut (New Haven Colony existed independently from 1638 – 1662). He was the grandson of Captain Thomas Munson and the son of Samuell and Martha (Bradley) Munson. Thomas’ older brother, Samuel 2nd, is my 7th great grandfather; Thomas is my 7th great grand uncle.
Thomas married Mary Wilcoxson on 15 September 1694. Mary had been born 11 December of 1676 and died 28 November 1755. They had at least one child according to Find a Grave, a son named Ebenezer (1717 – 1792). Thomas died in New Haven County, in the town of Cheshire and is buried there in the Hillside Cemetery.
On March 2, 1857, Christian Adermann, age 40, married Fredericka Louise Bergemann, age 24, in the Evangelische Kirche in Bietkow, Kries Prenzlau, Brandenburg, Prussia.* Christian was recorded as being “Cabinet maker journeyman in Beitikow.” His father had died prior to the wedding, so his mother signed on her son’s behalf. Fredericka was the daughter of Joachim Bergemann and Sophia Danoff, both of whom were still alive in 1857. Her father signed that she was eligible to get married and that he approved. Rev. Jaeckel presided at the ceremony.
Christian and Fredericka became the parents of Ferdinand Adermann (b. 11 Feb 1859). Christian is presumed to have died sometime in the years 1858 – 1860, because Fredericka married William Adermann in about 1860 as has been estimated by other family records.
*Source: Beitikow Lutheran Church Records. See also Our Family Genealogies.
Captain Thomas Munson, my 9th great grandfather and a founder of the New Haven Colony, lived from 1612 to 1685. He was born in Rattlesden, England and died in New Haven, in what is now the state of Connecticut, USA. In The Munson Record, Vol 1, on page 60, the author closed the chapter on Thomas Munson with a review of contemporary events which happened in our ancestor’s life–events we now consider important historical events. Consider the following events which happened in Thomas Munson’s life.
When Thomas Munson was 4 years old, Shakespere died; when 5 yrs. of age, Lord Bacon became chancellor of England; at 6, Sir Walter Raleigh beheaded, –Thirty Years War (between Romish and Protestant princes of Germany) began; at 7, circulation of the blood discovered by Harvey; at 8, the Pilgrims landed from the Mayflower upon Plymouth Rock; at 11, the settlement of Manhattan island, now the City of New York, was begun; at 13, Charles I became king of England; at 18, the settlement of Boston was commenced; at 20, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden defeated Wallenstein and was killed at Lutzen; at 23, Hartford began existence; at 25, the Pequot War occurred; at 26, the settlers of New Haven spent their first Sabbath, Apr. 15, worshiping under an oak which stood at the northeast corner of George and College streets, –and Harvard College was founded; at 27, the New Haven Colony adopted a constitution, which T.M. signed; at 28, the Flemish painter Rubens died; at 30, the Italian philosopher Galileo died; at 31, Louis XIV succeeded his father as king of France; at 34, the Apostle Eliot began his labors among the Indians; at 37, Charles I beheaded; at 41, Cromwell became Lord Protector of England; at 45, the Half-way Covenant appeared in New England churches; at 48, Charles II crowned; at 49, Whalley and Goffe arrived in New Haven; at 50, New Haven Colony refused to be united by royal charter with Connecticut Colony; at 53, N.H.C. was united with CC (in May); at 55, Sir Isaac Newton conceived the theory of gravitation, and Jeremy Taylor died; at 63, King Philip’s War broke out; at 64, Milton and the Dutch painter Rembrandt died; at 73, the Spanish painter Murillo died, and James II was crowned.
On the 19th of January, 1982, Hildegarde Boerner died in the town of Sheboygan, in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, USA. She was 87 years old at the time of her death, having been born on 29 August 1894. Hilda was the second child and oldest daughter of Johann (1861 -1941) and Margarete Boerner (1864 – 1941) of Gaulsheim, Germany. When she was still 17 years old, in 1912, she immigrated to the United States on board the Kroonland. John Boerner had immigrated with his family earlier and then he returned to Gaulsheim to get Hilda so they could marry and live in Wisconsin. My newly-found cousin in Gaulsheim told me they were married on the ship on their way to the USA. I have not found their marriage record yet, but continue to look.
When the young couple arrived in Wisconsin, they lived in the town of Niagara for some years. It was during this time that John’s mother, Catherine, died from a surgeon’s slip of the scalpel, leaving young children still at home. Aunt Hilda graciously stepped in and helped raise the youngest children, including my grandmother Anna Maria. My uncle, Hilda’s nephew, remembers her as a kind, good-natured, gentle woman with a great laugh. She also had learned English but spoke it with a significant German accent. Recently my uncle told me about when she would see her nephews and exclaim, “My! How you boys have crowed!”, commenting on how they had grown. Because of the way she helped raise Martin’s children after Catherine died and because of her kind heart, she was very dear to my grandmother, who thought of her very much like a mother, and to grandma’s sons (my father and uncles).
Their first son, Martin, was born in Niagara on May 1913, just a year after they arrived in Wisconsin. Jacob was born in 1919, Margret in 1921, Elizabeth “Betty” Rose in 1922, and John J. “Johnny” in 1929. In May of 1929, John and Hilda had moved to Kohler, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, where they were active members of the community and the Roman Catholic Church. One of the tragedies the family suffered was when Elizabeth “Betty” Rose died of leukemia in 1945. Betty had celebrated her 23rd birthday on 24 July, 1945, then was diagnosed with leukemia in early August; she died just three weeks later on 29 August, 1945.
Hildegard lived a good long life and she lived it well. Today we celebrate her adventuresome spirit, her love for her family, and her willingness to serve people joyfully and lovingly.
Today is the remembrance of the marriage of my 6th great grandparents, Agnes Berg and Joannes Baum in the Roman Catholic Church in Liersberg, Rheinland, Prussia on 16 January, 1719. Not much is known about the couple. According to their parish marriage record, Joannes was the son of Petri Baum and Agnes was the daughter of Henrici Berg.
Agnes and Joannes had six known daughters born to them between the years of 1720 and 1738. Maria Anastasiae Baum, their first born and my 5th great grandmother was christened on 10 December 1720. Margaretha (c. 9 March 1724), Anna Gertrudis (c. 23 October 1725), Maria Barbara (c. 24 November 1729), Maria Catharina (c. 22 April 1732), and Veronica Catharina (c. 18 September 1738) finished out the known children in the family. That we know their christening dates (all found on Family Search) suggests the girls may well have been born on that day or just a day or two earlier. In an era of high infant mortality, parents did not usually wait long to have their children baptized.
Their daughter, Maria Anastasiae Baum, married Joannes Barthen who was from Lieser, Germany. She moved to Lieser and their descendents continued living there for several generations. Their great granddaughter, Barbara Clara Barton, who was born in Lieser, Germany and immigrated to the USA as a young woman was written about earlier.
Liersberg, the home of Agnes Berg and Joannes Baum, is on the western border of modern day Germany, very near the French border. It is not a large town, and appears to be surrounded by rich farmland. I have not discovered much about the town, but appreciate its long history and it being the home to so many generations of my ancestors.
My great grandmother, Catharina Storch was born on this day, 12 January 1871 in Gaulsheim, Germany. She was the daughter of Jacobus and Sybilae “Sybil” (Wilhelm) Storch, also of Gaulsheim. Four days later, on 16 January 1871, Catharina was baptized at the Roemish-Katholische Church in Gaulsheim.
According to the 1900 U.S. Census, Catharina married Martin Boerner in about 1888. Their firstborn son, John, was born the next year, in 1889, followed by Jacob in 1891. Son Karl was born in 1894. Martin immigrated to the United States first in 1897 and got established in Niagara, WI before sending for Catharina and their three sons a year and a half later. Karl died when they arrived in the USA but the older two boys joined their parents in Niagara, Wisconsin.
Katharina and Martin had four more children in Niagara: Mary, Martin, Margret, and Anna (my grandmother). Tragically, Katharina died at the young age of 45 when she was in surgery for appendicitis. The surgeon’s scalpel slipped and sliced her liver; she bled to death on the operating table. Anna was 6 years old when her mother died, Catherine was 10, Martin was 12, and Mary was 17. Martin, Sr. never remarried and got help raising the younger children from the older siblings and his daughter-in-law, Hildegard.
Today, 6 Jan 1856, is the birthday* of Minna Grube, the wife of my great uncle. Bartle Boerner. Bartle had immigrated from Gaulsheim, Germany in September of 1884, and moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Minna, his future wife, was born in Milwaukee of German immigrant parents, Wilhelm and Caroline (Schurmann) Grube.
Milwaukee was a popular city for German immigrants and the young Bartle apparently met Minna fairly soon after his arrival. The couple married on 14 January, 1886**, just days after her 30th birthday. They had three known children: William Peter (1886 – 1949), Anna (1888 – 1962) and Arthur Fredrick (1895 – 1963).
The first two children, William and Anna, were born in Milwaukee; by the time Arthur was born, the family had moved further north in Wisconsin to the Kaukauna/Appleton area in Outagamie County where Bartle and Minna lived the rest of their lives. Minna died on 12 October, 1945.
Ancestry.com. Wisconsin, Births and Christenings Index, 1826-1908 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. Original data:
“Wisconsin Births and Christenings, 1826–1926.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009, 2010. Index entries derived from digital copies of original and compiled records.
Ancestry.com. Wisconsin Marriages, pre-1907 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000. Original data: Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services. Wisconsin Vital Record Index, pre-1907. Madison, WI, USA: Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services Vital Records Division.
Elizabeth Sparke, my 10th great grandmother, was born ca. 1575 in Rattlesden, Suffolk, England, the daughter of William and Elizabeth Sparke. At the approximate age of 16, in 1591, she married John Munson (1571 – 1650) in Rattlesden. The couple had four known children: Elizabeth (1595 – 1635), Judith (1606 – 1638), Mary (1609 – 1648), and Thomas (1612 – 1685). Her son, Thomas, immigrated to the New World, and became Captain Thomas Munson of the New Haven Colony.
Elizabeth is thought to have died (or maybe was buried) on 3 January, 1634 having spent her entire life in Rattlesden.
Source: Find A Grave
Today is the birthday of my paternal great grand uncle, Bartholomaus Boerner. I have made brief reference to Bartle (as the family wrote his name) earlier in a post about his younger brother, my great grandfather, Martin Boerner, Sr. The paper mill the brothers worked at in Niagara, WI was the Kimberly-Clark mill, also previously explored. Today’s focus is on Bartle and his family.
Bartholomaus Boerner, his name often written in American records as Barthel or Bartel Borner (the “e” removed), was born on Christmas Eve of 1856 to Adam and Annae Mariae (Janz) Boerner. The family resided in Gaulsheim, Ahunhessen, Germany. He was baptized the next day, Christmas Day, at Roemisch-Katholische Kirche in Gaulsheim.
On September 19, 1884, when he was 27 years old, Bartle arrived in New York City on the ship, Rhynland, which had departed from Antwerp.* Like so many other immigrants, he traveled in steerage on the trip to his new country. He moved to Milwaukee, a popular place for Germans immigrating to the United States.
Fifteen months after he arrived in the States, Barthel married Minna Grube in Milwaukee on January 14, 1886. Minna was a first generation German-American born in Milwaukee to her German immigrant parents, Wilhelm and Caroline (Schurmann) Grube. The young couple lived in Milwaukee where Bartel worked as a packer and a laborer according the City Directories.
The couple’s first son, William Peter, was born on July 30, 1886 and their daughter, Anna, was born into the family on February 9, 1888. The family continued to live in Milwaukee until at least 1893 according to city records. Sometime soon after that they moved to Kaukauna in Outagamie County, WI so Bartel could work in the paper mill. Their youngest son, Arthur Fredrick, was born on May 30, 1895 in Kaukauna.
Two years later, in December of 1897, Bartle’s younger brother, Martin arrived in the United States and joined his brother in Wisconsin. The brothers traveled up to Niagara, WI to work at the mill for a year. Bartle then returned home to his family and Martin brought his family over to join him in Niagara.
According to the City Directory records, when the family moved to Kaukauna, Bartle was listed in the 1897 and 1901 directories as a fireman. In 1908, he worked at Boyds paper mill and in 1910 he was at Brokaw mill. It was also noted that he was an Alderman in 1910 at the age of 54. Bartle died on April 1, 1914 at the age of 57.
*Source: “United States Germans to America Index, 1850-1897,” index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/KD33-L7Y : accessed 01 Oct 2013), Bart. Borner, 1884.
John L. Blue, my 3rd great grand uncle died on this day in 1895 at the age of 53. John was the son of Robert and Martha (Blue) Blue and the younger brother of my 3rd great grandmother, Elizabeth “Betsy” (Blue) Bates.
John was born in 1842 and married Mary Ellis in Adams County, IL on 24 Oct 1867.* They had seven children: Martha, Margaret, Emma, Edward, John, an Unknown first name, and Lawrence Peter, who was just three years old when his father died tragically in a mill accident.
According to the Illinois State Register of Springfield, IL, (Dec 24, 1895):
John Blue, one of the oldest employes at the rolling mill, met his death there last night about 9:30 o’clock in a most horrible manner, and right before the eyes of a fellow workman, who was unable to render him any assistance. A fellow workman approached Blue carrying molten iron. Blue was standing with his back to the pit in which the large fly wheel whirls at a terrific speed, when, in stepping back to get out of the way, he lost his balance and fell backward. Blue was caught in the wheel and whirled through the air. Coroner Burkhardt was notified immediately and upon arrival took the remains in charge and had them removed to Hemberger’s undertaking establishment.
The man is one of the oldest employes at the mill, having been there for over fourteen years. The accident is made doubly sad from the fact that the man leaves seven children besides his wife, all of whom are dependent upon him for support. He was 53 years of age.
Find a Grave reports that John was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois.
Jordan Dodd and Liahona Research, comp.. Illinois, Marriages, 1851-1900 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2005. Original data: Index compiled from county marriage records on microfilm located at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah by Jordan Dodd of Liahona Research (P.O. Box 740, Orem, Utah 84059). Specific source information is listed with each entry.
This record can be found at the County Court Records, Film # 1845384 -1845385.
Last month I wrote of the Rite of Confirmation of Anna Marie (Boerner) Aderman in the Lutheran Church. Today we remember the Confirmation of Oscar Dearl Aderman at the same church about three years earlier.
Oscar was born in Altamont, Effingham County, Illinois on June 25, 1907 to Carl and Floy (Bates) Aderman. When he was a boy, maybe 8 – 10 years old, his family moved to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and farmed outside of Daggett. The family lived with poverty and extremely hard work from the time they moved to Michigan. Oscar had to quit school after eighth grade and go to work to help support his parents and younger siblings.
When he was 20 years old, Oscar took the necessary classes to be confirmed in the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod and become a member in full standing at Holy Cross Evangelical Lutheran Church in Daggett. The Rev. Henry Hopp presided at his Confirmation on December 18, 1927.
A few years later, after he and Ann had married and were living in Niagara, WI, they moved their membership to Mt. Olive Lutheran Church in Iron Mountain, MI where Oscar was a prominent and faithful leader in the congregation.